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White Hole Cosmology

 
The White Hole Cosmology was developed by Dr. Russel Humphreys. It is more than a solution to the problem of distant star light, but also an entire Young Earth Creationist cosmology.

He proposes an interesting answer to the question: " How old is the Universe?" The answer is, " By what clock? "  What is meant by this question is that according to this model by a clock on Earth, the Universe would only be a few thousand years old, but by a clock ate the edge of the Universe, it would be billions of years old. The key to this model is the idea that time was much slower on Earth, than distant parts of the universe, on day 4 of creation.

This model has different starting assumptions from the big bang. Among other things this Young Earth model is Biblical, while the Big Bang is non Biblical.

The Big Bang cosmology is base on what is called the Copernican principle. It is the idea that the universe is the same every were. This is a basic assumption of the Big Bang. While popular literature implies a universe that has a boundary and center, according to the Copernican principle there is no boundary or center. According to Big Bang theorists, mater fills all space with no boundary.

The Copernican principle is an arbitrary, evolutionary assumption. The Bible contradicts the Copernican principle implying that the  Universe has a boundary and that the Earth is near the Center.

This is important because gravity depends on boundaries.  According to the Big Bang theory there is no boundary and there fore no net gravitational force. The Biblical Universe has a boundary, with a net gravitational force. The significance of this is the fact that gravity slows time. This was predicted by General Relativity and has been demonstrated by experiments.
The expansion of the cosmos is evident from both red shift and the Bible.

Isaiah 40:22.  It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in:


Genesis 1:1-5
1.  In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
2.  And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
 3.  And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
 4.  And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.
 5.  And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.


Not to scale.

According to this theory the Deep was a  large sphere of water with the Earth a formless undefined region of water a center.


 

Not to scale.

Genesis 1:6-8
6.  And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.
7.  And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.
8.  And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.

The term firmament simply refers to an expanse or a space. God starts expanding space for a space between the water above the firmament and below the firmament. Some water stays inside the space and is later used by God to make sun moon and stars.
 





Today the water above the firmament is still out there. It is probably about 24 billion ly out and beyond the farthest galaxy.

Spalms148:1-4.
 1.  Praise ye the Lord. Praise ye the Lord from the heavens: praise him in the heights.
 2.  Praise ye him, all his angels: praise ye him, all his hosts.
 3.  Praise ye him, sun and moon: praise him, all ye stars of light.
 4.  Praise him, ye heavens of heavens, and ye waters that be above the heavens.

The continuing expansion of space cools thing down and the heat red shifts to become the Cosmic Black body Radiation.


This huge sphere of water would have a mass of about 20 X that of the visible universe would have produced a huge dent in space-time such that the gravitational potential would produce be nearly that of a black hole. At this point the Earth would be at the center of this sphere,


On day four as God created the stars the additional mass would push the Earth below the critical point that in a back hole would be the event horizon. below this point there would be not time since the time dimension would be imaginary making it space like.


As the sphere of water expanded the galaxies would be polled out of the timeless zone. The expansion would cause the star light to become red shifted and the reduction in the gravitational potential \would cause the additional red shift that has been interpreted as accelerating expansion.


Eventually the Earth would be pulled out of the collapsing time less zone and out of the gravitational potential


On Earth the process takes no time at all, but billions of years in the rest of the universe. The stars were made at this time and distant star light has time to reached Earth. An observer at night on the fourth day on Earth would see black sky and then suddenly the stars would appear all at the same time.

So during the six days of creation on Earth, billions of years passed at edge of the universe, so that the age of Universe when Adam saw it, was six days, Earth standard time but the light from distant stars would still have time to reach us. The result is that distant objects would appear old.

Here is a simple comparison between the Big Bang and White Hole Cosmologies.
Bounded +
Relativity
=
Young Earth Theory.
Unbounded +
Relativity =
Big Bang Theory.

The basics of this theory are scientifically sound sense, if the universe is bounded clock rates must be different and if the universe was much smaller in the past, clock rates were vary different.

 Time Dilation allows plenty of time in deep space for other physical processes to occur, such as most of the theoretical stellar life cycle galactic collisions and galactic windup.

The conclusion of this theory is that God used relativity to let us see a young Universe, by time on Earth, which was slow on the Fourth day. It is a good solution to the distant star light problem, being both scientifically and Biblically Sound. The main problem is that it is difficult to test, but no more so the Big Bang.
 

 

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