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Scientific Methodology


Topics

Observation

Measurement

Experimentation

Peer Review

Data

Theoretical Systems

Debate

Logic

Repeatability


The Scientific Method the description of the general process of scientific observation, it is a general description and not an absolute rule.

Observation is the viewing and recording. and measurements of facts and data. Experimentation is one way of engaging in observation. Observation is simply the collection of dat

A hypothesis is a tentative explanation of an observed phenomenon used to make testable predictions.

Predictions are produced by the application of the hypothesis other inputs to predict the results of future observations. These predictions must be unique because the same prediction from two more hypothesizes can’t distinguish between the alternatives.

Testing a hypothesis involves making observations based on the hypothesis so as to see if its predictions agree with the observations.

Example

The observation is made of a known particle of known mass and negative charge following a parabolic path.

 

The hypothesis is made that a small massive positively charged particle exists at the center of attraction. This is similar to the way the atomic nucleolus was discovered.

 

The prediction is made of the path of a similar positively charged particle, that it is of the same mass and but opposite charge of first particle. It should follow a hyperbolic path showing that it was deflected.

 

If prediction occurs, then the prediction succeeds and the hypothesis supported.

 

If the new particle follows the same path as the first then the prediction fails and the hypothesis falsified so a new hypothesis needed.

 

The new hypothesis is made of a small neutral extremely high mass particle; possibly a mini black hole; with enough gravity to bend particle paths.

 

The new prediction for is that neutral particle of the same mass as the first two should follow the same path as the other two particles. If prediction occurs then the prediction succeeds and the new hypothesis supported

 

 


Scientific Method is just a general description of the scientific process. It works best with controlled experiments where particular predictions by controlling variables. However, it does not always work well for real world observations. Since variables often not controllable it often can not test for particular predictions.

 It often does bot work well for historical sciences were variables are usually not controllable. It such cases particular predictions often can not be test. Furthermore destruction of evidence can come from both natural and manmade sources. Unfortunately manmade destruction of evidence can occur by scientists themselves, such destruction can be both accidental as well as deliberate.

The fact is that the Scientific Method is not always used exactly as described and it’s use varies depending on the situation


 

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