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Unification Theory


Unification Theory: A theory in Physics that unifies all of physics under a single theory.

Unification theories are also called a theory of every thing unification theories ultimately describe the underlying nature of reality. One difficulty with these theories is that they are often unfalsifiable. The problem is that most of the key concepts behind unification theories are sufficiently broad that they can explain almost anything as a result it is hard to find a way prove them wrong. One solution is to develop more specific theories based on the set of key concepts that are narrow enough make specific predictions that can if wrong falsify the specific theory.


Unified Field Theory

A unified field theory is a theory seeking to unification of the four forces of Nature under a single field theory. Now Electromagnetism and the week nuclear force will unify at high energies, however gravity  and the strong nuclear force have not been unified with the other two.

Electromagnetism was the first unification of forces in physics. Before that Electric charge and magnesium were originally considered different forces, but in mid 19th century it was discovered that they are manifestation of the same force. Now called Electromagnetism the unification resulted from the work of Michael Faraday, James Maxwell and others. it was discovered that magnetic fields are a result for electric charges in motion.

While Einstein is best known for his Special and General Theories of Relativity he dreamed of unifying Gravity and Electromagnetism. He spent the last 20 years of trying to develop a Unified Field Theory and was engaged in this effort when he died.

Electroweak interaction is the unification of Electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force. This unification occurs at energy levels greater than 100 GeV at which point the exchange particles W & Z (weak force) and Photon (electromagnetism) become essentially identical. At these energies the W, Z and Photons become four massless bosons labeled W-, W0, W+ and B0. The unification occurs in part because over 100 GeV the W, Z bosons stop interacting with the Higgs field. The Electroweak interaction has actually been observed.

Grand Unification Theory is the theoretical unification of the strong nuclear force with the electroweak interaction. Now according to theory it would require energy levels as high as 1014 Gev which is beyond current technology to produce as a result it remains untested. Even stranger the exchange particle (X boson) is estimated to have a mass of a whopping 1015ev.

Quantum Gravity is the is the theoretical unification of the strong nuclear force, electroweak interaction, and gravity and according theory this unification is thought to occur at 1019 Gev which is beyond the capacity of any Earth based accelerator. These energies are so high it is highly unlikely that it will ever be tested.


Loop Theory

Loop Theory is also called Loop quantum gravity and it the main competitor of string theory however it is not as well known. Apparently string theory has better publicity agents. Loop Theory quantizes gravity by considering space-time to be a fabric of woven loops, with each loop a Planck length(10-35m) in size. One problem is that it is not yet certain that it can reproduce General Relativity


String Theory

String Theory is a theory in physics that replaces point particles with one dimensional strings. The key concept is that  different particles result from different vibrations of these strings. Furthermore the inclusion of gravity  makes it a theory of everything. These string would be about a plunk length (1.916 X10-35 m) in size. One problem with string theory is that it requires multiple unseen dimensions that are curled up to near plunk length. Mow despite its popularity it has one major flaw and that is that it is inherently untestable, which is problematic for a scientific theory.

The original version of String Theory, called Bosonic String Theory contains bosons that is forces carrying particles but lacks fermions which are the particles of matter. It also has a particle called a tachyon which has imaginary mass requiring it go faster than light. This version of  String theory required a whopping 26 dimensions. The solution to these problems resulted in five deferent string theories. Called Super String Theories all five versions have 10 dimensions and have both bosons, and fermions with Super symmetry between them. They all lack tachyons. The five Super String Theories differed in details such as open and closed strings.The existence of five Super String Theories began a search for a single theory to unify them.


M Theory

M-theory is that does that, it incorporates and generalizes the five superstring theories. M-theory can be applied in many situations, ironically including supernatural situations because that is something mainstream physics has tried to avoid. The one down side to M-theory, is that at present it is untestable. The one test of CERN’s supper collider producing micro-black holes did not produce positive results.

M-theory has 11 dimensions and allows the extra 7 dimensions to be as large or larger than the 4 dimensions of space-time that are already known. In these 11 dimensions are multidimensional objects called Membranes that are generally referred to simply as branes. Resulting from M-theory equations, they are membrane-like structures consisting of from 1-11dimensions. The idea is that these branes exists in an 11-dimensional space, and that they contain universes. According to this model our universe is a 3-brane. This 11-dimensional space is called the Bulk in Brane cosmology.

Each brane is its own universe with its own laws. Oddly enough  these parallel universes could be closer than your computer screen, but in directions we can not perceive. Being outside the space time of our universe, they would have a time all their own.  Even the Bulk would even have its own distinct time or no time at all.

In M-theory, most of the strings of string theory; in our universe; are open and attached to our 3 brane at their ends.Sense the atoms of our bodies are attached to our 3 brane we can not move off of it into the extra 7 dimensions. Because we perceive the universe entirely by way of interactions with electromagnetism (light) and interaction with matter; We can not see or otherwise perceive the extra 7 dimensions.


General Grand Unification

General Grand Unification (GGU) is a Scientific Cosmogony developed by Dr Robert Heramann. Dr. Robert Herrmann, Ph.D. is a retired Professor of Mathematics from the U.S. Naval Academy.A Cosmogony is a theory of the origin of the Cosmos and of reality it self. He developed the GGU-model by way of an advanced level of mathematics called non-standard analysis. The GGU-model generates theories of everything showing the causes and unifying processes that produce the behavior of objects. The GGU-model can produce many cosmogonies which are theories of every thing.

In the GGU-model the process that produce the behavior of objects occur behind the scenes in what is called the nonstandard physical world. Through the nature of how scientific theory describes physical laws, Dr Heramann mathematically showed how physical laws actually parallel human thought processes.

 

General Intelligent Design

General Intelligent Design (GID) is an interpretation of the GGU-model that is not related to the Intelligent Design movement. The Intelligent Design movement which is restricted to finding evidence of intelligent design in living systems is often  referred to by Dr Heramann  as Restricted Intelligent Design. (RID) Based on mathematical analysis General Intelligent Design on the other hand indicates that all natural processes are intelligently designed and operated. General Intelligent Design uses non-standard analysis to model intelligence.

This not a case of, "I can not understand it so God must be behind it", but it is a conclusion of the mathematical analysis. It results naturally from the fact that natural phenomenon are describable in terms of abstract human thought such as mathematics.

According to General Intelligent Design all natural phenomenon result from intelligent agents that control the processes. Now these intelligent agents could be one or more intelligent beings or mechanisms preprogrammed by an intelligent being. Put simply according to General Intelligent Design the reason why natural phenomenon fit abstract human thought such as mathematics so well is that it is ultimately a result of abstract intelligent thought.


Digital Physics

Digital physics is a collection of theories that propose that at its most fundamental level the universe is information, and that it is therefore computed. This is a concept that is growing in modern physics and is becoming more and more mainstreamed. One thing that shows the power of this idea is the fact that it was conceived of by multiple people independent of each other. However this leads to the conclusion that the universe is a simulation being run inside some kind of information processing system. However, such an information processing system could not have originated by chance process but had to be specifically programmed, so it must have been programmed by intelligence.

Now the logical conclusion is that this programming intelligence is the being we refer to as God. This conclusion is so unsettling to some proponents of Digital Physics that they have resorted to notion that the universe is a simulation inside some futuristic computer operated by humans of the future or even aliens. However the computing power needed to simulate the universe in high level of detail that it is would have to be bigger than the universe. 

Some have even proposed some form of Darwinian development process in an effort to try to make Digital Physics fit Naturalism. However if the Universe is a computed information system it would still need be programmed to evolve even if the end result was not preprogrammed. So such an idea even if true does not eliminate the need for an intelligent programmer. The fact remains that if the universe is a calculated information system, then it logically had to have been intelligently designed and programmed.

Digital Physics results mainly from Quantum Mechanics and the fact that it is the best way to explain even the strangest of Quantum weirdness. It is further supported by the fact that all natural laws obey abstract mathematical principles. This is an up and coming idea but it faces the specter of philosophy of materialistic naturalism a philosophy which Digital Physics totally refutes.


The Information Universe

The Information Universe is a Digital Physics interpretation of General Intelligent Design.  I am developing this specific theory based on both concepts, however I came with the Digital Physics independently before I found that others had the same idea. The goal is to by starting from Digital Physics and General Intelligent Design, to develop a detailed enough theory to be testable and even falsifiable.

The starting point is that the universe is at its most fundamental level, composed entirely of information. This infers that the universe is a virtual reality resulting from an information processing system whose programmer and operator is God. This further infers that the universe exists to give us conscious entities a reality to experience and live in.

The first development was that space is a grid with a plank length resolution, This provides a quantum level nature to gravity thus uniting General Relativity and Quantum mechanics. It also eliminates singularities since even in a Black hole an object can not have a size smaller than plank length.

The developing process has produced three testable prediction. One in a quantum eraser experiment, even destroying the data need to determine which slit a particle goes through after being collected but not looked at will produce a wave like interference pattern. Instantaneous Quantum effects are instantaneous in the lab frame of reference and not the relativistic frame of reference of the particles. The existence of three new particles which only inter act with the nuclear forces and gravity.

While the Information Universe is still a work in progress the goal is still a detailed testable theory. With three predictions, it is already a testable theory.


 Conclusion

Unifying all of physics under a single theory is a major goal in theoretical physics. The results of such efforts are often theories of every thing dealing with the nature of reality itself. However as is so often the case, one’s starting philosophical assumptions affect one’s conclusions. In the case of theories that touch on the nature of reality philosophical assumptions tend to stand out more than usual because they are closer to the base of those assumptions.

However the priori dismissal of the existence of God and in fact all possibilities of intelligent design even when the science screams it, reduces science from a pursuit of truth to atheistic mythology development. Thus if a theory that unifies physics is to truly be a theory of every thing, then existence of God can not be dismissed out of hand. Because if God does exist and you deliberately exclude any possibility of His existence then any resulting theory would be fundamentally flawed.

 

Unified Field Theory

Loop Theory

String Theory

M Theory

General Grand Unification

General Intelligent Design

Digital Physics

The Information Universe


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