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1st law of

2nd law of

3rd law of

0th law of


Order from disorder
Reducing Entropy

Entropy and the
Origin of Life

Entropy and Applied Energy

A reprint of the original paper on the affect on entropy of the application of energy to a system.

Thermodynamics is the study in physics of the transfer of energy, the work it does and it’s affect on matter. Thermodynamics is dynamic not kinetic so it does not deal with the actual processes of energy movement; that would be kinetics. Thermodynamics deals with the results of the transfer of energy.

There are two main fields of Thermodynamics Classical Thermodynamics and Statistical Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics was developed from the study of steam engines and was based entirely on empirical measurement and it lead to the four laws of Thermodynamics.

In their simplest forms Laws of Thermodynamics can be stated as follows:

1st Law of Thermodynamics: Energy can be neither created nor destroyed.

2nd Law of Thermodynamics: The amount of unusable energy in a closed system increases.

3rd Law of Thermodynamics: As the temperature of a substance approaches absolute zero its entropy of approaches zero.

0th Law of Thermodynamics: Two objects in thermal equilibrium with a third object are also in equilibrium with each other.

Note: . The 0th Law is more fundamental than the 1st law but it was discovered after the other three.

Statistical Thermodynamics works at microscopic as well as macroscopic level. It explains why the four laws of Thermodynamics work and it explains things that Classical Thermodynamics can not.


The principles of Thermodynamics are the most well tested scientific principles known. They are also so general that they apply to everything in the universe including the universe itself. Thermodynamics is path independent so it often does not matter how one get from state “A” to state “B” which is why it applies to everything.


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