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Entropy and beginning of life


Back Ground

Living cells are highly organized complex systems that consist of numerous molecular machines that perform any number of functions. These molecular machines are indispensable to cellular function and maintenance. There are three main types of cells each type has their unique qualities. Some of them have components the others lack but they all have some components in common.

Prokaryote cell

Plant cell

Animal Cell

Single celled organisms such as bacteria No nucleus. No Mitochondria. Includes the simplest living cells.

Contains Chlorophyll that allows them to absorb solar energy.
 

No cell wall making them flexible. Found in animals and people.
 

Cellular machinery is important to cellular function because they copy, manufacture, and transport. In fact without them cells could not repair themselves or reproduce.

DNA is not self replicating but copying DNA takes several molecular machines that unwind it, separated it, transcribe it, and rewind it.
 

Transposing DNA information to RNA involves a molecular machine called RNA polymerase that separates the DNA, transposes it to RNA and then reconnects the DNA

A Ribosome is a molecular machine that uses the RNA to manufacture proteins on demand. Another molecular machine then folds the protein stand into the exact shape needed for its job.

Motor proteins carry proteins to where they are needed in bags called vesicle. The motor proteins carry the vesicle by walking along microtubules.
 

These molecular machines are just tip of the cellular molecular machine ice burg. The result is that living cells have a degree of ordered complexity seen no place else except in the Human Mind. Such a degree ordered complexity means that living cells have an extremely low entropy.


The Problem

Since even the simplest known living cell is far more organized and complex than there the basic chemical components that makeup a cell. As a result a living cell’s entropy is much much much much much much much lower than that their basic chemical components. Forming life from nonliving basic chemicals requires a tremendous reduction in entropy.  So any theory on the origin of life must be able to account for this tremendous reduction in entropy.

The options boil down two possibilities. They are Abiogenesis or creation by an intelligence from outside our universe (a supernatural intelligence) The possibility has been proposed  that Life originated on another planet but it dose not actually explain the origin of life. All it does is move the problem to another planet. The question is which of the two possibilities best fits with the principles of thermodynamics the totally naturalistic notion of abiogenesis, or a supernatural intelligence.


Statistical Entropy

 Statistical Entropy is the application of probability theory to the thermodynamic principle of entropy.  It shows that entropy is a measure of the amount of disorder in a system. In the formula relating entropy to disorder the number of equivalent microstates or the number of possible ways for a given condition to occur is denoted as W, the entropy is denoted as S and  k is the Boltzmann Constant.

 k= 1.38 X 10-23 JL-1

S = k ln W

This shows that entropy is a measure of the disorder of a system. Disordered systems have more equivalent microstates (W) than ordered systems. As a result the larger W is the more disordered the system and the smaller W is the more ordered the system is. Furthermore the larger a system’s entropy the more disordered it is and the smaller a system’s entropy the more ordered it is.


Order from Disorder

Reducing entropy and producing order from disorder requires more than just applying energy to a system but depends on how the energy is applied. When energy is applied to a system in a manner more ordered than that system’s degree of order it increases the system’s order. By contrast when energy is applied to a system in a manner more disordered than that system’s degree of disorder it increases the system’s disorder.  The Mathematical relationship is shown by:

Number of equivalent microstates of the applied energy is We
Number of initial equivalent microstates of the system is W
The maximum change in entropy is denoted as DSmax.
k is the Boltzmann Constant = 1.38 X 10-23 JL-1

This shows the general direction that applying energy to a system will move the entropy of that system. The value DSmax denotes the change in entropy that occurs if the energy is applied to the entire system with 100% efficiency. The actual change in entropy results from the amount of energy actually applied to the system but the direction of the change (increase or decrease) is the same.

This principle can be reduced to two statements.

The general application of energy to a system in a manner more random than that system will increase the entropy of that system.

The general application of energy to a system in a manner less random than that system will decrease the entropy of that system.

This principle applies to life and its origin because it applies to all systems being both system and path independent.


Application to the Origin of Life 

Any theory on the origin of life must raise the per-biotic chemicals' degree of order and complexity to that of the simplest living cell. To do this it must apply energy to the system in a manner at least has organized and complex as the simplest living cell.

 

To illustrate this lets take a frog and a blender.

Put the frog in the blender and tern it on.

In a matter of seconds you will have a blender filled with all of the chemical components needed to make a frog in the form of frognog. The frog was converted into frognog and the entropy of frognog is much much  greater than the entropy of a frog.

However to get life from non life you have to turn frognog in to a frog

Or at least turn frognog in to a single cell bacterium.

NOTE: No frogs were actually harmed in the making of this example.

However the entropy of frognog is much much much greater than the entropy of a single cell bacterium. The usual explanation is that cells started out simpler without the cellular machinery. There are several problems with this idea.  First of all no such organism exists, it is totally ad hoc effort to keep abiogenesis looking viable. Even if it existed these hypothetical cells would still need to acquire the cellular machinery to become today’s cells and there is no natural way to produce cellular machinery without cellular machinery. Furthermore without cellular machinery to repair itself a cell’s entropy would quickly increase and it would die.

Another problem with this simplified cell idea is that the order from disorder principle is path independent. In other words it does not mater how you get from point A to point B the results are the same so adding hypothetical stages does not change the results. What is needed is to evaluate all of the phenomena that can add energy to pre-biotic chemicals or hypothetical proto-cells.

What follows is just such an evaluation.


Heat Energy and the Origin of Life

Heat is one source of energy available for pre-biotic chemicals or proto-cells, so we’ll heat up our frognog

Heat applies energy to a system in a random manner that is more random than the frognog or any other pre-biotic soup. The result is cooked frognog.

Wheat > Wfronog

We = Wheat

W= Wfronog

 

DSmax > 0 

 The frognog’s entropy increases partly because the heat will tend to beak down organic chemicals rather than produce them.


     

The heat will tend to beak down organic chemicals rather than produce them

Expose any organism to enough heat and you will kill it.

Some are more resistant than others but they all have limits.  This resistance is due to cellular machinery and so it would not be available before you have a living cell

 

Heat is clearly not capable of making life from non life.


Radiation and the Origin of Life

 Radiation is one source of energy available for pre-biotic chemicals or proto-cells.

So lets get take a microwave oven and put our frognog in it

Close the door and turn it on

However radiation applies energy to a system in a random manner. It is more random than the frognog or any other possible pre-biotic soup. The result is that you cook the frognog.

Wradiation > Wfronog  

We = Wradiation

W= Wfronog

DSmax > 0 

The frognog’s entropy increases in part because the radiation tends to beak down organic chemicals rather than produce them. Expose any organism to enough radiation including roaches and you will kill it.Some are more resistant than others but they all have limits.

Radiation is clearly not capable of making life from non life.


Electrical Energy and the Origin of Life

Electrical energy is one source of energy available for pre-biotic chemicals or proto-cells in the form of lighting. So lets get take our frognog put it out in a thunderstorm and let it get struck by lighting. However while electricity applies energy to a system in a less random manner than heat and radiation it is still more random than frognog or any other possible pre-biotic soup. Most of the energy gets converted to heat with a small amount of the chemical reactions most of which are not in the direction towards life. The result is that you cook the frognog and break it down further.


Welectricity >  Wfronog

We =  Welectricity

W=  Wfronog

DSmax > 0 

The frognog’s entropy increases in part because electrical energy tends to beak down organic chemicals rather than produce them. This is supported by the famed Miller-Urey experiment in 1953. The electrical spark tended to destroy amino acids once made. As a result the experiment required a trap to keep the products from going back through the apparatus to preserve the amino acids that were formed. Also when lightning striks a living organism often kills the organism

Electrical energy is clearly not capable of making life from non life.


Solar Energy and the Origin of Life

Solar Energy is one source of energy available for pre-biotic chemicals or proto-cells. In fact it would have been the most commonly suggested source of energy suggested for the origin of life. If we take our frognog and put it outside with the sun poring on it. Now without chlorophyll and the accompanying cellular machinery there is no mechanism to convert solar energy to useful energy and without these mechanisms solar energy gets applied to the system in a random manner with most of what is absorbed becoming heat.. The result is that frognog will decay and eventually stink. This decay will happen even if it is not exposed to bacteria it will just be slower.

  Wsolar > Wfronog  

We = Wsolar

W= Wfronog

DSmax > 0 

The frognog’s entropy increases this is in part because without chlorophyll and the accompanying cellular machinery solar energy tends to beak down organic chemicals rather than produce them which is particularly true of its ultraviolet light, expose to which can cause cancer.  

Solar energy is clearly not capable of making life from non life.


Chemistry and the Origin of Life

 Chemistry is one source of energy available for pre-biotic chemicals or proto-cells. Unlike the others chemistry can increase the order of a system, reducing its entropy however it dose not necessarily do so but increasing or decreasing entropy depending on the reaction. Chemistry can also use the other sources of energy to either increase or decrease entropy. There are two main ways that chemistry can reduce entropy. The first way is by reducing the number of free moving particles thus reducing the number of equivalent configuration (W) It is effectively reducing the size of the system. The other way is that chemical bonds have a geometric order to how they form so they can produce a degree of order in the atoms. This geometric order most often tends to form simple repetitive patterns like those found in crystals. However carbon chemistry can from some complex molecules even without life. As a result it’s safe to conclude chemistry can apply energy in a manner more ordered than frognog or any pre-biotic soup.

Wchem-min <  Wfronog

We =  Wchem-min

W=  Wfronog

DSmax < 0

Thus the frognog’s entropy can decrease however it needs to be noted that this is not guaranteed just possible.The larger more complex organic compounds become the more unstable they become in that they tend to break down quickly after being formed.

The question is can chemistry produce life?

Dose chemistry alone have sufficient organization to produce life from non life. The answer is no because life is more than just chemistry. Even the simplest living cell  is a complex assembly of  information, and molecular machines that manufactures, transports and manipulates large complex molecules as it needs them.

Wchem-min >  Wcell

We =  W chem-min

W=  Ωcell

DSmax > 0 

 The cell’s entropy will increase based only on chemistry.

The result is that by itself chemistry is not sufficient to produce life from non life.


Mechanical Energy

Mechanical energy is one source of energy available for pre-biotic chemicals or proto-cells. Like chemistry it can increase the order of a system, reducing its entropy however it dose not necessarily do so but increasing or decreasing entropy depending on the application of the mechanical energy. There are two main ways by which mechanical energy can be applied to pre-biotic chemicals or proto-cells, they are pressure and currents.

Currents do possess a degree of order in that all of molecules of a fluid are generally moving the same direction. This has the potential of aligning molecules into less random patterns affecting the chemistry that can happen.

Mechanical pressure can be both destructive an constructive however in a chemical environment there can be mechanical pressures that actually aid the chemistry of long changes molecules such as DNA and RNA. In such cases it does increase the order of the chemistry a little bit beyond what would other wise occur but not beyond what it possible by chemistry alone.

The result is that that the best application of  mechanical energy has about the same number equivalent state as can be produced by chemistry.

 

Ωchem-min = Ωmechanical-min

Ωmechanical-min >  Ωcell

Ωe =  Ω mechanical-min

Ω=  Ωcell

DSmax > 0 

The cell’s entropy will increase based only on no mechanical energy.

The result is that by itself mechanical energy is not sufficient to produce life from non life.

 


Natural Selection and the Origin of Life

 It is at this point the proponents of abiogenesis pull out their “ultimate weapon” of  Natural Selection. Natural Selection is pulled out and waved over the problem like a magic wand that once is invoke magically fixes all problems eventually being able to turn frognog into a frog.

Natural selection: Process by which environmental conditions (nature) determine (select) how well particular traits of organisms  can serve survival and reproduction.

The result is that those varieties with traits that best serve survival and reproduction have more kids and their traits spread through the population. It is a form of natural selective breading. A key point of Natural Selection is that it works only on populations of living organisms. That means it only works on life making it no help what so ever with regards to producing life from non life.

  1. The response to this is that life started out simpler than it currently is, that is that life started without the current molecular machinery. There are several problems with this notion.

  2. No such life exists and no evidence for it exists. It is a totally ad hoc invention

  3. Without cellular machinery there is no way to read DNA or RNA to manufacture needed proteins on demand.

  4. No reading mechanism also means that DNA or RNA can not pass on newly acquired traits to offspring making them totally useless.

  5. Without cellular machinery there is no way for a cell to accurately repair itself so as a result its entropy will increase and eventually kill it.

Assuming that these hypothetical cells did exist getting from there to exiting cells still requires a tremendous reduction in entropy. Somehow the hypothetical cells would still have to acquire this cellular machinery without the cellular machinery that produces it.                                                              

The question at hand is can natural selection do the job?

The problem is that Natural Selection does not actually produce anything because it can only “select” from traits that already exist those traits that are best for survival and reproduction in a given environment. As a result Natural Selection applies no energy to a system and so it can not reduce entropy. So without any way for the hypothetical simple cells to acquire cellular machinery Natural Selection has nothing to work on. The only remaining possibility would be if Natural Selection were a sufficiently ordered process that its selections would tend towards decreasing entropy. This would require it to behave like a genetic algorithm. Genetic algorithms are complex computer program routines that use trial an error to work to wards a preprogrammed goal, even if the exact out come is not predetermined.  These computer routines have several features that make them work.

  1. Random mutation of datasets.

  2. A preprogrammed objective that is used to determine survival and copying of a given data set.

  3. All possible configurations can survive as long as they are the closest to the goal. 

While Natural Selection inspired genetic algorithms, it lacks the vary properties that gives genetic algorithms their power. It does use random mutations of datasets (genes) but that’s where the similarities ends. Natural Selection has no preprogrammed objective that is used to determine survival and copying since its only goal is survival and copying. There are also genetic configurations in living cells that are always fatal. The simple fact is that Natural Selection is not a sufficiently ordered process for decreasing entropy.  This problem is amplified by the fact that without cellular machinery the hypothetical simple cells can not read genetic information so offspring can not get new traits from their parent. The result is that Natural Selection can not over come the thermodynamic barriers to developing existing cellular machinery.

Natural Selection is clearly not capable of making life from non life.


A Heterogeneous Environment

The question now rises as to what would happen if all the energy sources available to per-biotic matter were to work at the same time after all they are all acting in the same environment. If they worked independently of each other the number of equivalent microstates (Ω) would be multiplied together such that Ωe =  Ωheat Ωradiation Ωelectricity Ωsolar Ωchem-min Ω mechanical-min. The result is the number of equivalent microstates of the energy applied to to per-biotic matter would increases since none of the available sources of energy has an Ω >> Ωcell this results in  Ωe >>>> Ωcell. This makes the problem even worst for abiogenesis because that it drives up the entropy of the per-biotic  matter.

If the energy sources available to per-biotic  matter were to work together by working through one of the energy sources then it would tend to bring the number of equivalent microstates of the other energy source towards the one that they are working through. In the case of per-biotic matter chemical energy would be the energy source the others would tend to work through resulting in Ωe =  Ωheat. Since chemical energy has an Ωchem-min >> Ωcell this results in  Ωe >> Ωcell. This does not solve the problem with abiogenesis because that it can not reduces the number of equivalent microstates of the per-biotic matter to any were near that of a living cell such that a heterogeneous environment is not a help to abiogenesis.


Is Abiogenesis Possible?

We have examined every way that energy could be applied to non living mater and even a hypothetical overly simplified cell. They are heat, radiation, electricity (lighting) solar energy and chemistry. Heat, radiation, electrical energy and solar energy all proved to be more random than any potential pre biotic soup. As such they would increase the entropy of the pre biotic soup and not the enormous decrease that is needed for abiogenesis. While chemistry has a degree of order to it because of the geometry of chemical bonds and can decrease the entropy of a pre biotic soup. The some forms of mechanical energy that can be applied to pre biotic soup would help this process but not much such that it still falls short of the degree of ordered complexity of the simplest living cell.  

Placing all this sources of energy into a heterogeneous environment is not a help to abiogenesis. It makes it worst if the energy sources work independently. Even if they work together it only brings them all to the degree of order the can come from chemical energy but it that is a simple form of order that still falls short of the degree of ordered complexity of the simplest living cell.  

Abiogenesis' last hope of Natural Selection also falls short. Natural Selection can not lead to the origin of life since it only works on life. Proposing simpler cells without cellular machinery does not solve the problem.  This is because cells would be killed by rapidly increasing entropy without cellular machinery and Natural Selection is not an organized process that can decrease entropy.

Conclusion abiogenesis is a thermodynamic impossibility.


Abiogenesis Experiments

Over the years several experiments have been done to try replicate parts of the alleged process. The ultimate goal it to create life in lab the idea is that doing so would prove no intelligence was needed to start life to begin with. This notion ignores fact that inelegant scientists creating life in a lab would only show that  inelegant agents can create life.

Despite more than half a century of such experiments they are still far from any thing even close to the simplest living cells. The results of this study show that chemistry and other sources of energy available to pre-biotic mater are incapable of producing a system as orderly and complex as a living cell. Such systems have an extremely low number of equivalent states and thus extremely low entropy.

The question before us is do any of the abiogenesis experiments performed to date come any were close to producing life with out intelligent input. Do any of them reduce the number of equivalent states to that the simplest living cells reproducing the same ordered and complexity of such a cell.

Miller–Urey experiment


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The source code of this SVG is valid. (Own work from Image:MUexperiment.png.)
[GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0], via Wikimedia Commons

The Miller–Urey experiment started with three compounds that at the time were believed by evolutionists to make up the Earth's atmosphere and water. These compounds were hydrogen (H2),  methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), and  water (H2O). The experiment consisted of a sealed sterile collection of glass flasks and glass tubes that formed loop. The first flask was half-filled with liquid water and the second flask contained a pair of electrodes at 60,000 volts. The experiment proceeded by heating liquid water so as to produce evaporation. Lighting was simulated by sparks being sent between the electrodes. The gasses were then cooled to allow the water condense and return to the first flask so as to produce a continuous cycle.

 The experiment  did produce two main types of amino acids however even Miller commented that "The total yield was small for the energy expended." The experiment produced 1.05% glycine and 0.75% alanine.  The next most common amino acid produced by the experiment comprised only 0.026% of the product. For a total amino acid yield of  1.826% of the products of the experiments. The remaining 98% consisted largely of an insoluble toxic carcinogenic mixture called tar. Making a large portion of the products deadly to life.

This experiment produces problems for abiogenesis. Including the fact that this experiment and all similar experiments produced both right and left handed amino acids while all life on earth use only left handed amino acids. Furthermore right and left handed amino acids are incompatible and having both would likely hinder the process. Miller and Urey also had to include a trap in the experiment to keep the products from going back through the experiment. This was because the spark would destroy any amino acids produced if the went back through the experiment. In need to be noted that there is no such trap in nature. It also needs to be noted that only a few of the 20 amino acids needed for life were produced and life can not exist without all 20 amino acids. Furthermore the gasses used in this experiment do not represent what is now thought to have been conditions on the early Earth. As a result the experiment is actually a mute point.

While this experiment shows that some amino acids can be produced by chemistry, the amino acids produced are actually quite simple organic compounds. The amino acids produced are mainly hydrogen branching of a small chain of carbon atoms with nitrogen and oxygen included. They fully compatible with being produced only by comical bonding structures and thus well within what thermodynamics indicates chemistry can produce.

Lincoln and Joyce and RNA world

By Difference_DNA_RNA-DE.svg: Sponk (talk)translation: Sponk
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or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a molecule similar to Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are similar molecules both are made of 4 component nucleotides each with only one of them being a little difference. For all practical purposes RNA is a single helix version of  DNA. Both can and do encode information in living cells with RNA being used to transport the information.

What Lincoln and Joyce did  was to get an RNA enzyme that catalyzes the replication of RNA to catalyze the synthesis of another RNA enzyme which then in turn catalyzes the synthesis of original RNA enzyme. The RNA enzyme which in turn catalyzes the replication of RNA. The result is an exponential growth in the number of RNA molecules.

Based on these results they have the life got started with RNA as the information storage medium since it does not require the complex systems of a cell for replication, this known as RNA world. There are however several problems with this a big one of which is the conversion to DNA. The experiment was carried out in component rich environment at a constant temperature a situation which would not occur in nature since temperatures are always going up and down.

The clincher and one that results in a thermodynamic barrier is the fact that the  nucleotides of this RNA form a random chain of  nucleotides. This means that it does not encode any complex specific information (csi) such as is found in the DNA of every living cell. This fully consistent with what thermodynamics says we should expect from chemistry since  Wchem-min >>  Wcsi. Even if it did there would be no way to read that information and Wchem-min >>  Wcsi_reader.

Some would claim that it contains information about the environment. In reality it is just the optimization of the RNA to the chemical environment in which it exists. Even if you call it information this is not complex specific information since it does not encode anything. This can be proven to be the case because there is no code to encode anything.

Producing such an orderly and complex system would require a higher degree of control of the molecules than can be achieved just through chemistry. Living cells use specially create  and programmed molecular machines to precisely transport place molecules with the needed ordered and complexity to create life. Thermodynamics shows that the only hope these scientists have of producing life in a lave is to intelligently design, make molecular machines to precisely transport place molecules with the needed ordered and complexity  to create life.


Life and the Origin of Life

Living organisms have both the internally stored information and cellular machinery needed to produce other life. Individual cells have the internally stored information and cellular machinery needed to produce other cells of the same kind. Multi-cellular organisms have the internally stored information and cellular machinery needed to produce other multi-cellular organisms of the same kind. Each type of organism has the ability to apply energy to the raw materials of life with the degree of ordered complexity need to produce more life of the same kind.

 The fact is that the only observed way of producing life is for it to be produced by life. So life can produce life from non life. However life can not be the original origin of life. We have seen that life can create new life and it is the only observed source of life but the ultimate origin of biological life can not be biological life since no cell can make itself.


Intelligence and the Origin of Life

There is one other known phenomenon that has sufficient ordered complexity to apply energy in a manner of sufficient ordered complexity to produce life. That phenomenon is Intelligence.

 The human mind has a higher degree of ordered complexity than a single living cell. This is true even if the mind is just a product of the brain since the brain consists of billion of cells wired in a complex ordered network.

The fact is that the human mind regularly produces forms of ordered complexity. Scientists have encoded an artificial genome and successfully implanted it into a living cell thus proving that intelligence can encode a cell’s genome. It is not unreasonable to think that unless life on a single cell level requires a spiritual component that humans will one day develop the technology to artificially build a living cell from scratch. So a high enough intelligence would be capable of producing life from non life.


The Only Possible Origin of Life

This means that the only known phenomenon that could have have originated biological life is intelligence. But can intelligence exist without biological life?

There is evidence that suggests that the answer is yes! According to every major religion in the world except atheism there is a human sol that survives the death of the body. In addition Judaism, Christianity and Islam believe in a God without a physical body. Most religions have intelligent spirit beings of one form or another that exist without physical bodies. The near universal nature of these beliefs suggests that they are more than flights of fantasy 

More direct evidence comes in the form of near death experiences in which the person reports things they could not have known about that are confirmed to be real. There are also sighting and photographs of ghosts some of which suggest intelligence.

Granted these do not qualify as hard scientific evidence bur it is still more evidence than exists for abiogenesis, which is absolutely nothing.

There is scientific evidence suggesting that intelligence can exist apart from biological life and that the human mind in fact does so. A paper published in the journal NeuroQuantology called Synaptic Quantum Tunnelling in Brain Activity has shown that synaptic function requires quantum tunneling on demand. This quantum tunneling on demand requires the mind to control the process. As a result the mind can not be purely a product of the brain because the brain could not function if the mind were depended on the quantum tunneling it needs  to control. There has to be a degree of separation between the mind and the brain, thus the intelligence that is the human mind must exist independent of the biological life that houses it.

Intelligence also  fits the Sherlock Holmes Axiom: “When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth.” Because having shown abiogenesis to be impossible intelligence is all that remains and so it must be the truth.

Furthermore since our universe had a beginning this intelligence would have to be from outside our universe and an intelligence from outside the universe would exist outside of time and thus could be eternal. This intelligence would by definition be supernatural and it would by definition be the being we call God.

There is really only one reason for dismissing this answer and that is a prior commitment to the philosophy of naturalism. Naturalism discounts all but totally naturalistic explanations for all phenomenon as a starting assumption. Someone with a prior commitment to naturalism can not accept any intelligent explanation for the origin of life.


The Reason to Believe in Abiogenesis

Given its thermodynamic problems there is really only one reason to believe in abiogenesis. That is a prior commitment to the philosophy of naturalism. Naturalism discounts all but totally naturalistic explanations for all phenomenon as a starting assumption. Someone with a prior commitment to naturalism must accept abiogenesis regardless of the evidence. This because naturalism allows no other possibility because some form of abiogenesis is the only real naturalistic option. So if you hold to naturalism you have to believe in abiogenesis even if it requires violating every known law of science.


The Rational Scientific Origin of Life

 Having demonstrated that abiogenesis is a thermodynamic impossibility it can no longer be considered a rational scientific theory of the origin of life. Since the only possibility that fits with thermodynamical principles is an intelligence from outside the space-time of our universe.  This means that the real rational scientific theory on the origin of life is creation by a supernatural intelligence.

By definition God


Reference

How DNA Copies Itself

The Molecular Machinery of Life

Journey Inside The Cell

Statistical Mechanics

Statistical Entropy Order and Disorder

Order from Disorder and reducing entropy

Entropy and Applied Energy
A reprint of the original paper on the affect on entropy of the application of energy to a system.


 

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