Having no specific pattern, purpose, or objective.
The unknown and unpredictable element in happenings that seems to have
no assignable cause.
Probability: A measure of how likely it is that
some event will occur.
Coincidence: A sequence of events that although
accidental seems to have been planned or arranged.
It is often claimed; particularly with regards to Quantum mechanics; that random events
occur by pure chance and have no cause. Not only can this be
proven wrong for many systems, but such an interpretation is
purely philosophical rather than scientific. This because in that
absence of any possible physical cause the only logical cause is
a supernatural one and absolute naturalism forbids any
consideration of supernatural causes.
There are several types of events; most are associated with
gambling; that are generally considered as random, but they have
The flipping of a coin: When flipping a coin there is an
equal probability of getting ether heads or teals, but yet the out come
results from 2 main cases. The first is which side started face up. The
second cause is where the coin is in its spin when it hits the ground.
If the coin is near the beginning or end of a spin it will come up on
the same side as it stated, but if it is nearly half way through a spin
then it will come up on the opposite side. So there are causes to the
results of a coin flip. Ironically, the main unpredictable factor is
the intelligent agent (Human being) flipping the coin.
Throwing dice: When throwing dice there is an equal
probability of getting any one of six sides, but yet the out come
results from three main cases. The first is which side started face up.
The second how it rotates while be shaken in the persons hand .The
third cause is how is rotates after being thrown. So there are causes
to the results of throwing dice. Ironically, the main unpredictable
factor is the intelligent agent (Human being) throwing the dice.
Shuffling a deck of cards: The main causes in shuffling a
deck of cards is where the deck is split, how many cards come off the
thumbs together, and how many times the deck is shuffled. So there are
causes to the results of shuffling a deck of cards. Ironically, the
main unpredictable factor is the intelligent agent (Human being)
shuffling the deck of cards.
Coincidental events result from one or more unrelated causes that
happen to work together, so as to produce a given event. So there are
causes to coincidental events. Ironically, a common unpredictable
factor is intelligent agents. (Human beings).
All of these examples have definite causes and intelligent
Human beings are a major factor in what are often considered
Many aspects of human behavior are similar to
Quantum mechanics, in that they can be
studied in terms of probabilities, but individual behavior is
Criminal activity: Any one in law enforcement knows that
crimes are more likely to occur in some places than other's and certain
types of people are more likely to commit crimes than others, yet it is
impossible to known who will commit a crime at any given location at
any given time.
Traffic patterns: Every car on
the road is being driven by a human
being who is constantly making decisions both independent of and in
other drivers. However most roads have definite patters as to what
drivers on a road will do what. Consider a three lane high way coming
up to an
exit. Observation of the exit will show that a predictable fraction of
drivers will take the exit while the rest go on. Also it is more
drivers in the right lane will take the exit than those in the center
lanes. Yet it is impossible to tell exactly which drivers will take the
and which will not.
Voting pattern: On average certain groups of people are
certain areas tend to vote for the same party election after election
and in about the same percentages, even though impossible to tell
exactly which voters will vote a particular way.
Pastern making: Consider the
situation where a human being is
making a pattern from a group of identical parts, where the parts can
in any location in the pattern at a time. Even an observer who knows
pattern would not know exactly which part will go in each location nor
order will they be placed. The person making the pattern could simply
the choice on the spot, but the knowledgeable observer would still be
determine the probability of a given peace ending up in a given area of
Those every day events are considered random but they all have causes,
and often one or more human beings is the most unpredictable part
of the process. Furthermore much of human activity follows
probabilistic patterns, much like Quantum mechanics does. At the same
time are no such events that lack a cause. Given these
facts it is reasonable to conclude
that the probabilistic nature of some aspects of nature of some
aspects of nature such as those found in
Quantum mechanics are actually the
result intelligent agency. This make this probabilistic nature
evidence not only of Intelligent design but also of
intelligent maintenance and control of the natural process of our
universe, such an intelligent being would by definition be God.