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The Science of Geology


 

Sections

Minerals and Rocks

Earth's Interior

Plate Tectonics

Principles of Stratigraphy

The Geologic Column

Uniformitarianism

Catastrophism

Standard Modern Geology

Flood Geology

Alternative Geology

Radiometric Dating

Planetary Geology

Geology: The science that deals with the study of the Earth

Space flight has expanded it to include the surfaces of all terrestrial planets.

Minerals and Rocks

Minerals are the consonants of rocks that consist of natural crystalline solids that have a definite inorganic chemical composition. Rocks are made of minerals The rock above is made of two different types of minerals making it light and dark.

There are three main types of rocks

Igneous

Metamorphic

Sedimentary

Earth's Interior

The interior of Earth has several layers.

The solid crust which forms the surface on which we live. There are two parts to the crust continental crust and oceanic crust. The oceanic crust is a relatively than basalt layer about 3 miles thick. The continental crust essentially consists of sediment covered  granite slabs that go to an average depth of 22 miles (35Km) forming deep foundations,

The mantle is a solid but do to the high pressure and temperatures at those depth it is semi-fluid allowing it to slowly flow.

The liquid outer core is the area that produces the Earth’s magnetic field by way of electric currents.

The solid largely iron inner core is under such high pressure that even at such high temperatures it is still solid.


Plate Tectonics

According to Plate Tectonics the Earth’s crust is divided into segments called plates. They are not fixed but slowly move over the mantel.

Where the plates meet they interact in one of three main ways sliding. spreading. subduction. Subduction is generally seen as the driving mechanism of Plate Tectonics Furthermore when they interact the results are Earth quakes and volcanoes

Objections have been made to Plate Tectonics. They include questions that have been raised about how well the continents actually fit to gether. Questions have also been raised about whether or not  subduction is possible or not and without itPlate Tectonics is impossible.  Furthermore questions have been raised about seafloor magnetic stripes. These questions have resulted in alternative theories none of which are taken seriously by the scientific establishment.


Principles of Stratigraphy

There are three main principles of stratigraphy the principle of superposition, the Principle of continuity and the Principle of original horizontally. These principles form the  bases the uniformitarian of interpreting strata.

The Principle of Superposition is the concept that when one of the higher stratum forms, the strata underneath it have already completely formed. When the lower stratum forms, none of the strata above it existed..
The Principle of Continuity states that strata are formed from sediments in a fluid. Therefore, when any stratum forms it must be bordered on its sides by another solid body. Otherwise, the sediments will run around the earth. When the bare sides of strata are found, an uniformitarian geologist will look for its continuation or find some solid body that could have halted it.

Principle of Original Horizontally states that when a stratum is formed, the  lower surface and surfaces of its sides, corresponded with the surfaces of the adjacent bodies. The upper surface was parallel to the horizon, as far as that is possible. With the exception of the lowest stratum, all the strata were contained in two parallel planes to the horizon and were at one time parallel to the horizon.

These three main principles dominate stratigraphy despite this to observational and experimental evidence exist that all of these principles are wrong. It turns out that in flowing water sediment is laid down horizontally not vertically as the Principles of Stratigraphy assume.

 

 The Geologic Column

The Geologic Column is a theatrical system of rock layers used for the purpose of dating and categorizing rocks and fossils. It is based on a group of fossils found in the rocks called index fossils.

The column depicted in charts is an abstraction  showing different theoretical geologic ages but it does not represent the exact pattern that is found in the Earth. For example is found complete any place on Earth having been constructed by combing different locations. There are  a few places that have all of ages represented but they do not have the entire Geologic Column. Some places of have some of the ages represented but they are out of order being explained away as over thrusts.

One big problem is that the Geologic Column can not be tested because it is used to classify fossils, without consideration of other factors; like depth; that could be used to test it.

Uniformitarianism

Uniformitarianism is the theory in geology that the processes occurring on Earth today are the same processes that occurred in the past and will in the future. It was developed by James Hutton in 1785 as a direct attack against Noah’s Flood and the Bible. It holds that the present is the key to the past as stated by Hutton himself who saw “no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end.” It further postulates that large scale changes occur slowly over long periods of time.


Catastrophism

Catastrophism is the theory in geology that in the past there have been sudden, short-lived, violent events. It postulates that large scale changes occur in sport periods of time usually by violent events. The version proposed by Georges Cuvier in the 1800’s had several catastrophes was not related to Noah’s Flood and the Bible.


Standard Modern Geology

 Standard Modern Geology is mainly uniformitarian in nature but it recognizes that catastrophes have occurred. However uniformitarianism remains the dominant paradigm with its slow gradual processes. It is the core of the evolutionary interpretation of the fossil record holding that all things continue as they were from the beginning of the world in fulfillment of  II Peter 3:3-6.


Flood Geology

Flood geology gets its basic concept from the Bible which has a short creation period followed by a one year global flood that was a judgment from God. This Flood was a major geological catastrophe a tremendous upheaval. It was responsible for laying down most of the sedimentary layers fossils.


Radiometric Dating

Radiometric dating is the method of dating an object by way of the decay of radioactive isotopes. This process requires making assumptions about the original amounts of the parent and daughter isotopes. It also requires making assumptions about the amounts of contamination the in sample. The mother of all radiometric dating assumptions is that the decay rates are constant. It was long thought to be a sound assumption but recent data has shown that it may not be true. Measurements of Helium diffusion rates in zircons have provided evidence  of substantial accelerated decay rates in the past. Studies have also shown that the sun influences decay rates.


Conclusion

In conclusion geology basically involves studying rocks but it goes beyond that into studying how the Earth works. Different theories of Geology produce often different results from the same data. Finally there are reasons to question some of the conclusions of Standard Geology opening the doors to other theories.


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