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Creationist Cosmology

The Biggest Problem

Scientific Bible Based Cosmology

Scientific Bible Based Cosmology Short

White Hole Cosmology

Bible Based Cosmology Explains
Type Ia Supernovae Data

Bible Based Cosmology Explains Accelerating Expansion of the Universe


Introduction

Cosmology was largely ignored by Creation Science in its early days, with most of the focus on Geology and Biography. One reason was the fact that most of the arguments against Biblical creation were from the fields of Geology and Biography and so most of the focus was in these areas. The issue of being able to see distant star light was generally dealt with by assuming that God created star light in transit. As a result there was little concern with studying what was beyond our solar system. So Creation Astronomy was largely restricted to the solar system and cosmology was not seen as important.

However with the second generation of Creation Scientists coming of age this began to change. Problems in physics as well as cosmology began to be explored. Today Creation Science go well beyond Geology and Biography, but includes work done in Physics, Chemistry, and Cosmology.

The Biggest Problem

The problem of seeing distant star light had been the single biggest problem for Young Earth Creationists. The reason is that it is the only really objective evidence for an old universe. This is because a light year is the distance traveled at the speed of light in a vacuum in one year. The result is that light from a star is a billion light years away would take a billion years to reach Earth. So the question is how can we see a galaxy billions of light years away, if the universe is less than ten thousand years old? In the 1980's this problem started being taken seriously and scientific solutions began being proposed.

 

Proposed Solutions

There have been numerous attempts to solve this problem most of which never gotten any degree of acceptance. Regardless of the means they all fall under one of four categories. Some proposed solutions have gotten a high level of acceptance for a time, while others have not. Those that have had dominance for a time tend to maintain some degree of following even when better solutions come about.

1 The Light did not travel the distance
2 Distant stars were created before day 1
of the creation week.
3 The light got here faster.
4 Time dilation.

Every one of these categories has produced theories. However I am referring only to those that have had a significant amount of support. There are several minor ones that have never had much support and so are not worth mentioning.

The Light did not travel the distance

Are the Distances Real?

One approach has been to question the distances. Proponents of this position ask "How accurate can the measurements of the distances be?" This is because such large distances can not be measured directly. The flaw in this argument is that the methods used are based on very reasonable assumptions and in some distance ranges they can often be crosschecked by more than one method.

It is fairly certain that the distances measured within the universe are accurate to within about a factor of 10 not enough to squeeze the observable universe to within 6000 light years.

Mature Creation.

Also known as the Created in Transit theory, this idea proposes that God created the light from distant stars already in transit between the star and Earth.
It is usually justified based on the fact that God created the world functional. Living things were created as adults, this resulted from the necessity of having a functional world.

However there would be no evidence of growth, or wear and tear. Geological features were created complete and in place because of the necessity of having a functional world, but there would be no evidence of erosion. The difference is that one was necessary for functionality, while the other is providing false information implying events that never occurred.

The light got here faster

  C-decay Theory

This concept states that the speed of light (c) was faster in the past and that it has slowed over time. Developed Dr. Barry Setterfield and V. S. Troitskii, based on past measurements of the speed of light it was the first attempt a scientific solution to the problem. The data showed an apparent decay trend that levels off as time goes on. It has the added benefit of accelerating nuclear decay. Since decay rates are related to the speed of light, this would destroy radiometric dating.

Because of questions about the data actually showing a decay pattern, this model has fallen out of favor among creationists, but there are still strong adherents that are still trying to test it. The positive result of this model is that it has encouraged serious scientific investigation of this problem. It was good attempt at a solution, and the first real scientific solution to this problem to be proposed. It is testable, but it has problems and does not seem to have worked out. Hence it can no longer be considered a good solution.

Time dilation

There have been three main theoretical solutions to the distant star light problem based on Time dilation.  Pocket of Time Dilation which simply has a time dilation zone around the Earth or Solar system, which basically place the universe outside the Solar system on fast forward. White Hole Cosmology, which is based on an bounded expanding universe with in General Relativity. Cosmological relativity which while not developed for purposed of solving the distant star light problem, but when it is applied to a rapidly expanding bounded universe it provides a solution.

   

White Hole Cosmology

 Developed by Dr. Russel Humphreys, the White Hole Cosmology is more than just a solution to the problem of distant star light, but also an entire Young Earth Creationist cosmology. Dr. Humphreys proposes an interesting answer to the question: " How old is the Universe?" The answer is, " By what clock? " What this question means is that according to this model by a clock on Earth, the Universe would only be a few thousand years old. However by a clock at the edge of the Universe, it would be billions of years old. The key to this model is the idea that time was much slower on Earth, than distant parts of the universe, on day 4 of creation.

The White Hole Cosmology has different starting assumptions from the big bang. Among other things this Young Earth model is Biblical, while the Big Bang is non Biblical. So during the six days of creation on Earth, billions of years passed at edge of the universe, so that the age of Universe when Adam saw it, was six days, Earth standard time but the light from distant stars would still have time to reach us. The result is that distant objects would appear old.

Here is a simple comparison between the Big Bang and White Hole Cosmologies.

Bounded + Relativity = Young Earth Theory. 

Unbounded+  Relativity = Big Bang Theory.

 

Scientific Bible Based Cosmology

Building on the White Hole Cosmology and refining it leads to a more complete scientific Bible based cosmology. This cosmology results from the details that are produced from applying General Relativity to a bounded universe. By taking the what the Bible says a bout cosmology literally we have a universe bounded by a large amount of water.

Genesis 1:6-7 (KJV)
6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.
7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.
 Genesis 1:14-16 (KJV)
14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:
15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.
16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.
Psalm 148:1-4 (KJV)
1 Praise ye the LORD. Praise ye the LORD from the heavens: praise him in the heights.
2 Praise ye him, all his angels: praise ye him, all his hosts.
3 Praise ye him, sun and moon: praise him, all ye stars of light.
4 Praise him, ye heavens of heavens, and ye waters that be above the heavens.

These verses indicate that the universe bounded by a large amount of water with the Earth near the center. When these Biblical conditions are plugged General Relativity the resulting universe easily explains the Universe we see around us. It makes several testable predictions. What is particularly notable is the fact that  such a cosmology easily explains the Big Bang's biggest failure.

While not touted as such the Type Ia supernovae data; that is generally interpreted as an accelerating expansion rate; is actually a major and serious failure of the Big Bang, which predicted a decelerating expansion rate. This was an epic failure because the results were the opposite of what was predicted by the Big Bang.  It was eventually covered up by inventing imaginary dark energy to get rid of the failed prediction. However a Biblical universe bounded by a large amount of water with the Earth near the center naturally explains this data and much more.

 

Conclusion

So creationist cosmology has come a long  way in recent years. Not only can the distant star light problem be considered solved but there now exists a creationist cosmology that naturally explains the Type Ia supernovae data, which represents a major failure of the Big Bang, resulting in a scientifically viable creationist cosmology.


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