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The Cosmic Nature of the Science of Cosmology


Sections

History

The Expansion of the Universe

Cosmic Background Radiation

Methodology

Big Bang Cosmology

Other Naturalistic Cosmologies

Galactic Centric Evidence

Bounded or Unbounded Universe

Creationist Cosmology

Cosmology: The scientific discipline dealing with the origin, structure, and relationships of the universe

A cosmology: Any theory or doctrine that describes the natural order of the universe.

The history of cosmology is as old as men looking up in the sky and wandered what was up there. Every civilization has had a cosmology of some type usually take the form of a philosophically based mythology.  However as our knowledge of Physics and Chemistry has increased a more scientific approach began however philosophic assumptions still play a major role in Cosmology because we are limited in our perspective on the universe.


The Expansion of the Universe

Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the Universe in 1929 by measuring the redshift of distant galaxies. He discovered that the further away a galaxy is from us the faster it is moving away from us. He initially interpreted it as a doppler shift but it is now seen as resulting from the expansion  of  space itself. In 1998 the expansion of the Universe was discovered to be accelerating based on observations of type Ia supernovae.

 

Cosmic Background Radiation

Cosmic Background Radiation Spectrum

Cosmic Background Radiation is a thermal black body spectrum that is nearly uniform in every direction of space. It is the black body spectrum of an object at a temperature of 2.725 K which is -270.425 C or -454.765 F. The spectrum peaks in the microwave range a frequency of 160.2 GHz, with a wavelength of 1.9 mm.

It was first observed in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson while test an new radio telescope at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey.

Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Data Map

Red areas are warmer at about 2.7251 K
Blue areas are cooler at about 2.7249 K

The Cosmic Background Radiation temperature fluctuations were discovered by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data of the entire sky (showed an average temperature is 2.725 Kelvin with tiny temperature fluctuations spanning about 0.0002 degrees Celsius giving it a range from 2.7249 K - 2.7251 K. This is incredibly smooth in fact way too smooth for what should have resulted from a violent event like the big bang is supposed to be


The Big Bang Cosmology

The cosmology of the Scientific Establishment  is called the Big Bang Cosmology. It starts with all of mater and space of the universe squeezed into an infinitesimal dot called a singularity. This infinitesimal dot suddenly underwent an extremely energetic expansion commonly described as an explosion. Over time the heat of this expansion cooled as space expanded eventually forming galaxies, stars, planets and eventually us. The Cosmic Background Radiation is seen as residual heat from the Big Bang red shifted by the expansion of the universe.

The Big Bang is based on three main purely philosophical assumptions.

1. Absolute naturalism with does not allow any intelligents or purpose being behind the universe

2. The universe is considered to be unbounded with no edge beyond which there is no mater.

3. The cosmological principle states that the universe is uniform on the large scale such that it looks the same from every place in universe.

The goal of this unproven assumption is to deal with the fact that as we look out into the universe it looks allot like we seeing the universe from its center by making every place look like it is at center .

According to the Big Bang Cosmology the Universe started out with matter vary smoothly spread through out space, with just small variations. It is thought that gravity amplified these small variations producing the galaxies and galaxy clusters seen to day. Because of the expansion of space it also predicts that such structures should not be more a few hundred million light years across, however recently hyperclusters of galaxies have been discovered that are more than 3 billion light years across. This poses a problem for the Big Bang Cosmology which actually had already failed to predict the accelerating expansion of the universe now it’s blown this one. By the way these two are just the biggest Big Bang blunders but there are others.

There Other Naturalistic Cosmologies such as the steady state cosmology which has no beginning or end to the universe but requires a continual source of new matter. There is a new Cosmology called the plasma universe which depicts much of the phenomenon in universe as being electrical in nature. It is not yet fully developed.  


Creationist Cosmology

Creationist Cosmology is based on three main purely philosophical assumptions.

1. God as the creative intelligents with purpose in the process.
2. The universe viewed as bounded with an edge beyond which no mater is found.
3. There is a center to the universe and the Earth is near it.

This is not Geodetic because the universe does not rotate around the Earth  The Earth simply started out at the physical center of the universe and has moved away from it over time.

Plugging these assumptions along with the observed expansion into relativity results in time dilation at the center where the Earth would have been producing a time line on Earth consistent with the Biblical account of creation. The Cosmic Background Radiation is seen as the light God created on day one red shifted by an expansion factor of about 3,300.


In conclusion Cosmology deals with the origin, structure, and relationships of the universe but is heavily dependent on philosophical assumptions since we only see the universe a one location that is the Earth. Evolutionary and Creationist Cosmologies are based on different assumptions producing different results for the same data.


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